兩個月前，我花了 30 天時間觀察一瓶 1998 Monfortino 的變化，結果讓我大吃一驚。
雖說一瓶好酒被浪費了，我卻一點都不後悔，因為沒有這次經驗，我那裏會知道以往有多少瓶Barolo 因為處理不善而被浪費了。今後是否可以更好的享受 Barolo ，就要看我從中學懂多少了。
用同樣方法，我以馬拉松方式試了另外四瓶 Barolo ，他們分別是﹕
1998 Bartolo Mascarello Barolo （31天）
1998 Gaja Sperss （30天）
2005 Giacosa Barolo Falletto （21天）
2004 Giacosa Barolo Le Rocche del Falletto Riserva （16天）
- 四瓶酒都經歷了 1998 Monfortino 的四個階段的變化﹕先是嬰兒期的活躍但脆弱的階段（infantile exuberance）、然後是沉睡或反應緩慢期（dumb phase）、接著是又甜又酸但沒有深度的青春期（puberty），然後是深沉、甜美的壯年期（adulthood）。
- 酒精的氧化程度不一。Monfortino 從第10天左右開始有氧化跡象， Bartolo 比他更早（第3天），2005 Giacosa 跟他差不多（第12天），但1998 Sperss 與 2004 Giacosa 最強壯﹕Sperss 到第22天左右才開始氧化，至于 2004 Giacosa ，我試到第 16 天仍然完全沒有氧化的跡象。
- 最令我吃驚的是 Sperss ，他是唯一放得越久越精彩的一瓶，氧氣對他好像好處遠多于壞處。我猜這是 Angelo Gaja 發明的一年法國小木桶陳年，然後一年 Slavonian 巨型老木桶陳年的神奇效果。他的釀酒師 Guido Rivella 曾解釋為什麼要這樣做﹕ “The barrique shakes the wine down first, and then the botte smooths off the rough edges. The slow oxidation in the barrique gets the wine used to oxygen. If wine is always kept in impermeable containers, any contact with oxygen is such a great shock that it gets violently oxidized when it’s racked or bottled. But it also has to get used to the reductive state — to the absence of oxygen — that it will find once it’s bottled.” （見 Edward Steinberg 著 The Vines of San Lorenzo , p228）他的理論，在我的試驗得到了很好的證明。
除了試驗，我也找來有關釀酒技術的書籍惡補一番。給我最大的啟發是 David Bird 的 Understanding Wine Technology 。在討論酒的成熟過程的一節，他如此說﹕
Over 500 different compounds have been identified in the aroma of a mature red wine. These include alcohols, volatile acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones and all the products of interaction, decomposition and hydrolysis (their reaction with water) …
The ultimately better wine in a magnum is undoubtedly due to the slower rate of chemical reaction of the constituents, which gives more opportunity for interactions to take place. This results in a greater variety of chemical compounds and hence a greater complexity. （p.213）
我推想 Nebbiolo 可能包含比較豐富的抗氧分子（antioxidants），所以好年份的酒，如果保存得好的話，化學作用經歷五十年以上仍然不衰。如果經過像 Gaja 那樣的特別處理，可能更為耐久。
所以有所謂「新派」的 Barolo ，方法是縮短浸皮時間，並改用法國小木桶陳年，據說酒可以更早適宜喝。但這只是個美麗的誤會，因為除了幾個大師以外，大部份的「新派」Barolo 不過是用木桶味來掩蓋丹寧，丹寧隱藏了， Nebbiolo 也隨著失蹤！所以像 Domenico Clerico 、Roberto Voerzio 與 Paolo Scavino 等「新派」先驅，已先後降低新木桶的分量，甚至像 Angelo Gaja 那樣走上大小木桶混合的路子（Scavino）。
經過這一系列測試，我猜想只要我們讓酒有多一點氧氣，化學作用便會加速。意大利 winemakers 的 “ ‘n fund ‘d buta” 方法可能過于激烈了，所以我想如果我們作出一點修正，把酒的透氣時間從十幾天縮短到一兩天或者幾天，是否會讓酒成熟得更好喝但卻不至于發出如 Sherry 的氧化氣味？
為此，我做了好幾次試驗。這裏我選出兩個來為大家介紹﹕其一是 Barbaresco ，另一是 Barolo 。
我一共試了兩瓶 Cantina del Pino 的 2005 Barbaresco Albesani 。
我把半瓶緩慢地倒進另一個乾淨的 375ml 瓶子裏，然後把原瓶與半瓶同時放回瓶塞並馬上放進冰箱，一天後取出品試。
常聽人說把酒倒進半瓶裏放到第二天，可以保存酒的新鮮。我以前也試過這個方法，但總覺得酒老得太快，所以很久便棄用了。通過這次比試，我幾乎可以肯定用原瓶保存更好。我自己的猜想是﹕半瓶的瓶子裏的確空氣較少，但把酒倒進瓶子的過程會讓不少的氧氣溶化在酒裏（等如用 decanter ），所以這方法得不償失。
第二天﹕醉人的芳香，典型的玫瑰花瓣，甜入心肺的 tightly wound sweetness of fruit ，所有 Nebbiolo 最引人入勝之處都可以在這裏找到。一個多星期以前，我開了一瓶 Giacosa 的 2004 Barolo Rocche del Falletto Riserva ，印象中此時的 Cantina del Pino 比 Giacosa 還要好！但請留意﹕ Giacosa 剛推出時，價格是 Cantina del Pino 的五倍。
第三天﹕酒的 intense sweetness of fruit 仍然維持，但香氣失去了昨天的新鮮與芬芳，酒已過了最佳狀態，但仍然可口。
我在另一個網誌曾介紹這瓶酒，我的 tasting notes 是來自第二瓶的三天品試的。見﹕From Burgundy to Barbaresco 。
一瓶新年份的 Barbaresco 要讓她透氣一整天才怒放，接下來的 2005 Barolo 卻足足花了我三天才把他從 beast 變成 beauty ！
Giovanni Rosso 世代種植葡萄，但直到 1995 年才開始自己釀酒。現在的莊主 Davide Rosso 曾在 Burgundy 的 Domaine Jean Grivot 與 Denis Mortet 工作，聽說大名鼎鼎的 Roberto Conterno 認為 Giovanni Rosso 是明日之星，所以我是很有期待的。這瓶 Barolo 來自 Serralungda d’Alba 的 Cerretta ，查資料知道這葡萄園的風格是 “dense and tannic in true Serralunga style” ，我心裏有數了﹕絕對急不得！
第二天〔下午〕﹕開始有些輕微的 sweet scents 和 cherry notes ，但基本上還是比較緊閉。味道複雜了一點點，穿上了黑衣服的半熟鮮果，咬口的丹寧。過了一個小時後好像關上了門，還出現一點點酸味。這時我把大概 1/4 瓶倒進一個 375ml 的瓶子裏，準備晚上再試。
第三天〔下午〕﹕頑石終于點頭，野獸變了美女！成熟 Barolo 的典型 intense sweetness of fruit 出來了，丹寧也變得柔和了！原瓶的酒有比較 focused 的果味，有力氣，很男性；半瓶的酒則 supple ，陰柔，很女性。我的筆記是﹕ There is no more tension. Like the final movement of a classical symphony when all tension and conflict have been resolved. Pure bliss!
第五天〔早上〕﹕試了餘下的少許酒。已過氣了，帶丹寧的糖水，沒有活力，但也沒有任何氧化的氣味。這是否 Davide Rosso 從 Burgundy 學來的 clean and neat 風格？
我一直不太敢開新的 Barolo 和 Barbaresco 喝，偶然開一瓶，也是為了試試新的年份有什麼水平。經過這幾個月的嘗試，我膽量大了，這是與一瓶 1998 Monfortino 相處 30 天帶給我的最大收穫！
當然，揠苗助長沒法代替自然的成熟過程，但時不我予，縱使上天眷顧，讓我可以等到 2004 Monfortino 全然成熟的一天，可是我的嗅覺與味覺還行嗎？所以退而求其次，這個緩慢氧化的方法對我很是實用。
其實這段經歷對于處理老的 Barolo 和 Barbaresco 也給了我很大的啟示，且讓我在下一篇文章再細說。
這是我用來做「原瓶透氣」的簡單 cooler ，是 Eurocave 出品
初學葡萄酒的人都學會用 decanter，但我現在幾乎完全不用 decanter ，只獨沽一味用原瓶透氣的方法。我不知道是否因為 Nebbiolo 是剛中帶柔的葡萄，尤其是傳統派的酒，因為太長時間處在極度缺氧的狀況中，如果突然供應大量的氧氣往往會像久餓的人馬上狼吞虎嚥，搞得不好可以令他一命嗚呼！
15 thoughts on “不可思議的 Monfortino （中篇）”
It seem like took a Wine Course and realized more about Barolo, very interesting.
[版主回覆09/01/2010 22:39:00]Barolo is such an interesting world. Welcome on board!
I have been reading AM’s blog for the past year or so and recently stumbled upon your blog. What a revelation that is!!! I really admire the devotion you have for wine, especially Italian wine. I am submerging myself into Piemonte wines now, thanks to you.
Just want to drop by and say thank you for the wonderful tasting notes and sharing of your experience/experiments. I know for a fact that I wouldn’t dare doing some of those until I read your posts. I am lucky to be in NYC, where Italian Wine Merchant and Chambers Street Wines are located. Both of these venues are great for Italian wine lovers.
I am eagerly waiting for your part II. Meanwhile, I will crack open another bottle of Barbaresco tonight to re-read your post again. Keep this up!!!
[版主回覆09/02/2010 10:59:00]I'm glad to have struck a responsive chord so many miles away. NYC is a great place to be, and IWC has a wonderful collection. My wine journey to Italy really started from IWC.
So how was that Barbaresco?
心兄 , 我對於 Barolo 要這樣强勁的持久力有一種奇怪假設及推測 , 會不會跟發酵用的酵母有關呢? 因為細菌中有分嗜氧及厭氧細菌 , 若用上厭氧類酵母順理成章支酒的抗氧化的能力較佳 , 支酒就可能要很長時間才可熟成 ………….. 以上只是推測要找啲 Chem 書研究一吓 ………
佩服 AM 兄的想像力。我聽過一些很傳統的 winemakers 堅持用葡萄本身提供的天然酵母而不肯用外加的（如﹕Soldera），但酵母是否令抗氧能力加強則無從而知了。
我傾向覺得這是 Nebbiolo 在 Barolo 與 Barbaresco 的土壤有這種表現。很希望早日聽到您的研究結果！
[版主回覆09/03/2010 10:27:00]Instead of "sniff, rinse and spit", shouldn't we be slow-o'ing a bottle of wine to "death" to find out its true worth? I'm sure this makes a lot of vino sense, but is bad business.
"So how was that Barbaresco?"
I had a 2005 Produttori del Barbaresco and it was wonderful. I drank 2/3 over 4-5 hours and saved 1/3 for next night (or maybe longer just to see how it goes). Nose with great depth of floral, red fruit, earth-tone aromas and light toasty/tar in the background. I lost track of time and kept refilling my glass…haha. I normally wrote my tasting note quite seriously, but this wine made me just want to relax, sat on the couch with my wife and do nothing except enjoying its presence…thank goodness it saved my evening after opening a fault/oxidized ’78 Bordeaux.
For US$35, this Barbaresco is a great value. Too bad I bought the last bottle in that store. On the bright side, I was able to get another ’05 Asili Riserva and ’05 Montestefano Riserva by Produttori del Barbaresco for similar price. Eagerly awaiting their arrival with my recent Burgundy/Piemonte purchase….need more room in my cellar. Cheers!
[版主回覆09/03/2010 10:35:00]Isn't that lovely? A lowly basic, dirt cheap basic Barbaresco can deliver that much? Certainly another best-kept secret.
You should consider going for the 2006. There's a buzz now going on about finding bottles that have juice from single vineyards. What happened is Produttori has already bottled their basic Barbaresco when Lehman Brothers blew up. They then decided not to release single cru Riservas, and these went into more bottles of the basic, which is the only Barbaresco they finally released.
This co-operative is a marvel, though I don't know for how long this can continue as more and more growers become bottlers, e.g. Cantina del Pino. But why worry while the picking is many?
[版主回覆09/03/2010 10:37:00]客氣了！謝謝你提醒我有個 Giovanni Rosso ，後來在 BBR 找到，很清新脫俗的 Serralunga！
What a wonderful experience! I have opened a bottle of Bruno Giacosa Falletto 00…I think I will try the similar approach and let see what happen…..
[版主回覆09/04/2010 14:09:00]Would really love to hear what comes of this! Good luck!
看了你這篇文章,真的眼界太開, 不知道除了barolo 之外, 其他italy grape ( e.g. sangioves ) 有沒有此其特功能?
[版主回覆09/07/2010 08:16:00]Sangiovese 一般恐怕沒有這種耐力， Biondi Santi 是少有的例外，見﹕ http://hk.myblog.yahoo.com/jw!KluzXNGFHxnw1caKUQ.uq3gVlA–/article?mid=2437
南部 Taurasi 產區的 Aglianico 與 Barolo 可能不相伯仲，人稱 Barolo of the South 是也。我下一篇正想介紹最近的一次經驗。
Thanks! Today, the Bruno Giacosa Falletto's nose is a bit berry, floral and mineral. I like the tannin which give a very 咬口 feeling….Guess it can go further…
[版主回覆09/07/2010 07:27:00]Lovely, that's typical Giacosa when young. Almost Rhone and Provencal like in its floral note. Did you keep the bottle open all the time?
心兄, Thanks again for the tips on the 2006 Prudottori de Barbaresco. Will definitely check that out. It's getting cooler now in NYC so here come a number of wine tastings/wine maker dinners that feature Italian wine, especially Piemonte wines. At this point, I am torn between attending a Massolino Vigna-Rionda wine maker dinner (with a Barolo “Vigna Rionda” Riserva 1989 that will be flown in from the winery) OR a IWC Barolo/Barbaresco afternoon tasting (no wine list provided). If only I have two of myself Either way, I don't think I can go wrong…just close my eyes and pick one. BTW, do you have any thoughts on Massolino? Thanks .
[版主回覆09/08/2010 14:13:00]I would definitely go for Massolino if I were you. Vigna Rionda (in Serralunga d'Alba) is arguably the best vineyard in all of Barolo and Barbaresco, if only because of the legendary Giacosa Collina Rionda, which is no longer produced. I will never miss the chance to meet and talk to the winemaker himself (Franco Massolino?). And the 1989 is certainly a rare wine — I have been able to find only 2000 and 2001 up to now, but Vigna Rionda is hard like steel when young! How I envy you!!! Post a blog on the event, I beg you.
心兄, Thanks for the advice. I was able to sign up for the second to last spot for the Massolino wine dinner, lucky me. You're right, Franco Massolino will be there and I will definitely take some detail tasting note. Here is the wine list and I can hardly wait!!! Barbera d'Alba 2009 Nebbiolo Langhe 2004 Barolo DOCG 2004 Barolo "Margheria" 2005 Barolo "Parafada" 2005 Barolo "Vigna Rionda" Riserva Speciale 1999 Barolo “Vigna Rionda” Riserva 1989 –STRAIGHT FROM THE WINERY BTW, this is the organizer of this event, you might want to check out their site as well. This store is within 15 mins from my home. http://newyorkvintners.com/p-5429-evening-with-massolino-vigna-rionda-september-10th.aspx Cheers!
[版主回覆09/10/2010 14:23:00]Enviable!!! Be sure to post a blog …
If I may ask you to post a question: does Marco know who owns the parcel of Rionda vineyard from which Bruno Giacosa used to buy his grapes to make his legendary Collina Rionda?
No I didn't, just put the cork back…The bottle taste excellent today, nose is full of fruit….can't resist to drink a lot….
[版主回覆09/11/2010 07:47:00]Wish you luck! Will a warm vintage like 2000 go a long long way — I'm waiting for an answer from your bottle!
Just want to let you know that I thoroughly enjoyed the tasting and the company of Franco Massolino. Thanks again for the recommendation.
Inspired by AM and you, I am starting my own blog. Please bear with my horrendous writing skills and the lack of imagination…
BTW, the 1989 Vigna Rionda Riserva was beyond words. I had goosebumps and heard opera in my head while I was tasting it. It's easily one of the top 3 wines I've tasted this year.
BTW, these are the upcoming events – Marchesi di Barolo winemaker tasting in Oct and then a 2005 Barolo/Barbaresco tasting in Nov. The Nov tasting lineup is a who’s who in Piemonte (Gaja, Giacosa, the Conterno brothers, Altare, Clerico, Sandrone, Scavino, and more). Wish time moves a bit quicker…
Thanks again. Brian
[版主回覆09/17/2010 18:23:00]Truly enviable! Marchesi di Barolo of course is one of the forerunners if not "inventors" of Barolo (see: http://hk.myblog.yahoo.com/jw!KluzXNGFHxnw1caKUQ.uq3gVlA–/article?mid=3365 ).
Did you have a chance to ask Franco Massolino where Giacosa obtained his grapes for his Collina Rionda?
And I look forward to reading your encounter with Massolino!!!
"Did you have a chance to ask Franco Massolino where Giacosa obtained his grapes for his Collina Rionda?"
I did, indeed. He mentioned the family who owns that vineyard is by the name of Canelli. After they stopped selling grapes to Giacose in 1993, they started making their own wine but it's close to impossible to find their wine overseas. Being a gentleman, he subtly hinted the Canelli's wine is not up to par, "although the grape is the same, each winemaker has his own way of making wine. I guess they were not very successful so they ended up stopped making their own label and started selling grape/wine to other people again."
He didn't mention who got those grapes now. I did some research online and couldn't get to the bottom of this. Maybe your contact in Piemonte can help???
[版主回覆09/19/2010 17:20:00]I've heard some say that Roagna's Vigna Rionda is either from the same vineyards of the Giacosa grapes or close. Guess that will be a mystery forever.
Giacosa's magic is also in display in his Santo Stefano Barbaresco, which is better than the Barbaresco that the owner Castello di Neive makes.
I did some research over the weekend and found this interesting information from Sheldon Wasserman:
“Vigna Rionda covers about 30 acres, of which Aldo Canale owns 4.4 and Massolino owns 6.2.” Wasserman had a favorite impression of Canale, but I can’t find any other information about his wines.
Giacosa stopped buying grapes from Canale because of price! Here’s the story:
Interestingly, Mauro Mascarello (of Giuseppe Mascarello) nearly got on the train, but he had only the 1979 vintage that Giacosa gave up:
The Rare Wine Company rightly lamented that:
"And when Giacosa walked away in a dispute over the price of grapes, lovers of great, classically styled Barolo mourned." See: http://www.rarewineco.com/downloads/newsletter/archive/may305.pdf
Sorry that I am not able to keep the whole bottle for such a long time..I have finished it after open for 15 days….The best performance to me is around open for 12 days…Very lovely mineral….Make me think of top end burgundy….
[版主回覆09/22/2010 07:39:00]Very glad to hear this … really amazing that even a warm vintage like 2000 has such staying power. Thanks for sharing … hope to see a more detailed posting.
Bruno Giacosa is peerless, and even today is Grand Cru quality at Premier Cru price.